Teaching presence relates to the process of design, facilitation, and direction throughout the learning experience in order to realize desired learning outcomes (Garrison et al., 2000).
- Defining and initiating discussion topics;
- Sharing personal meaning;
- Focusing discussion;
- Avoiding misconceptions;
- Sharing expectations;
- Encouraging collaboration;
- Confirming understanding.
Garrison, D. R., Anderson, T., & Archer, W. (2000). Critical inquiry in a text-based environment: Computer conferencing in higher education. The Internet and Higher Education, 2(2-3), 87-105.
Effective Practices: Discussion Forum Facilitation
Direct instruction involves your input into the interaction areas of your online course, most significantly the discussion forum. At APUS we use discussion forums in our courses to share knowledge, explore ideas, and develop critical thinking skills — all of which support teaching presence.